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Ideology of Pakistan in the Light of Statements of QUAID-I-AZAM and ALLAMA IQBAL
It is important to understand the Ideology of Pakistan in the light of the statements of Quaid-e-Azam M.A.J and Allama Muhammad Iqbal.We will be talking about the concept of TWO NATION THEOEY and the concept of Muslims as a nation in the light of the statements made by these two great leaders. We will emphasize on two points no 1 Muslims are a separate nation with their distinct culture, civilization, heritage, interest and concerns and their objective is to preserve and protect this identity. This sense of nationhood developed earlier than the establishment of Pakistan and this sense ultimately created the state.Therefore, the issue is how to protect and promote this separate identity, what should be the measures and methods to achieve that objectives.
The basic issue is what was the basis of this separate identity or Muslims as a distinct nation, the core of this separate identity is provided by Islam. Islam has served as the sheep anchor for this concept of separate nation and on that basis this cause was promoted and we will see how far these two personalities played their role. This concept of separate nation on the basis of Islam has 3 aspects.
The teachings of Islam:
- The teachings and principles of Islam which are the universal aspects of this concept of nation.
The Muslim rule:
- The Muslim rule which give the sense of confidence, sense of identity and sense of importance to Muslim in this part of the world and also the cultural influences that came from central Asia because the Muslim conquerors came from this region, so some of our habits, food and dresses has been influenced and same can be said about the language.
The local environment:
- The 3rd aspect relates to the local environment and a condition that is what kind of conditions the Muslims were living in what kind of geographic conditions, interaction with other people also influenced their habits and options. I give you an example, suppose if you are living in hot climate that would influence the kind of dress you wear, similarly that can influence the food you eat and this is going to be different if you are in cold climate where your dress can be influenced by the weather conditions by the topography whether you live in plain or you live in mountain area all these things influence the people habits behaviors and the choices of the people they acquire.
So these factors were the basis of the identity that the Muslims developed in this part of the world.
The role of leadership:
While discussing the Muslim nationhood I may mention here that the role of leadership is very important. The role of leadership is very important to put nation on the way. A good leadership infuses the qualities of awareness, consciousness, mobilization, sense of direction, and defense against the adversaries and in this way a group of people becomes highly motivated goal oriented and a motivational force, and that facilitate the implementation of an ideology. The Muslims were lucky having such competent leadership Leadership plays a vital role in propagating ideology and it is in this context, the context of leadership that the role of Quaid-e-Azam and the Allama Iqbal becomes important. Now the question is what kind of role these two leaders played.
An Assessment of Quaid-e-Azam’s personality:
M. A. Jinnah was a history-making leader who not only left his imprints on history but also changed the course of history by creating a new state
Quaid-e-Azam came on the political scene when the Muslims were facing a serious crises, crises of identity, and crises of how to deal with the situation under the British rule. What should be the future of the Muslims of the Sub-Continent and it is in this connection that he emerged as a charismatic leader. I explain an incident to understand that why he was a charismatic leader (Buzarag wali kahani jo eng nahin janta tha) this is what is charismatic leadership. That is he enjoys the total commitment and total loyalty of the people, people have faith and confidence on him that he can solve the problems and that is what kind of popularity he enjoyed.
ROLE OF JINNAH
Quaid-i-Azam played an important role for the development of the concept of the Muslim nationhood, Two Nation Theory and ideology of
During all these years the emphasis of Quaid-e-Azam was on that the Muslims being distinct nation and a separate identity have their own interests which need to be protected and these kind of ideas were reflected in his statements which he gave from time to time. His early efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity were materialized when THE LUCKNOW PACT (1916) was signed. If we look at the LUCKNOW PACT which was an understanding, an agreement between the AIML and the Congress party was facilitated by Quaid-e-Azam. The issue of the rights of the Muslims was adequately dealt with in this pact. For example the question of Separate Electorate the Congress accepted the Muslim demand of Separate Electorate, they also agreed that in the Central Legislative Assembly one- third seats would be reserved for the Muslims and there were also guarantees and provisions for the protection of the minority rights. In other words now Quaid-e-Azam was working towards constitutional and political arrangements for the protection of separate identity of the Muslims of India.
If you look at the subsequent developments the NEHRU REPORT which came in 1928.
In the Nehru Report, the accepted Muslim rights were ignored which were given to them in 1916. Jinnah retaliated forcefully by presenting fourteen Points in 1929.For example the principle of Separate Electorate was discarded in the Nehru Report.Quaid-e-Azam objected to that and wanted the Nehru Report to be amended but that never happened because the Congress was not willing to amend the Nehru Report. One year later Quaid-e-Azam presented his famous FOURTEEN POINTS.A speech which he made in March 1929 that speech is generally described as Jinnah’s Fourteen Points is a charter of Muslim rights and Muslim interests that represents the political, administrative and religious interests and demands of the Muslims. If you want to know that what kind of demands the Muslim League was making as an expression of Muslim nationhood and distinct Muslim identity then you would have to look at the 14 points of Quaid-e-Azam.
He defined Muslim identity and mobilized them with reference to Islam and convinced others that Muslims are different from the Hindus and the Congress. Islamic principles, concepts and symbols surfaced in his speeches and statements.
Jinnah used the term NATION for the Muslims of India in Feb 1935 (Legislative Assembly). He argued that the combination of religion, culture, race, arts, music and so forth make a minority a Separate Entity. From 1935 to onward Quaid-e-Azam engaged in a very active mobilization of the Muslim community and he began to emphasize on Islam and Muslim identity more often because he thought that a common denominator, set of values, principles broadly shared by the Muslims could be an important political symbol to uniform them and an important political instrument for mobilization. Therefore he emphasize that Islam is important and core that Muslims were advocating and propagating. And from 1935 onward he began to talk about separate interests and separate identity of the Muslim, you find that in his statements and speeches. He issued several statements where he emphasize time and again that Muslims are not a minority, they cannot be treated as a minority but a separate entity and a separate nation which fulfill all the conditions of being a separate and distinct nation. So there is a repetition of this theme in his speeches and statements. In March 1936
We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral code, custom and calendar, history and tradition, aptitudes and ambitions; In short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all cannons of international law, we are a nation.
Then if you look at his speech which he made at the Lahore session of the meeting of the Muslim League where resolution for separate state was passed this speech is basically a re statement of what is a separate nation. In addition to that Quaid-e-Azam wrote an Article which was published in a British magazine called “Time and Tide” and the date was March, 9 1940.This Article is the only which Quaid-e-Azam wrote himself and again this article addresses two major issues.
- How and why Muslims are a different nation
- What should be the political future of India, what should be the safe of the region and how best the interests of the Muslims could be protected and here the Quaid-e-Azam was talking about a separate state for the Muslims because sufficient guarantees could not be available.
So in other words we could argue that Q A was playing a very important role in shaping the concept of Muslim nationhood for the Muslims of this region had he had a very clear view of Islam for the Muslims of this region and also for
Speeches and statements: 1940-47
Jinnah believed in the force of Islam as he said that “Islam is a dynamic force that can unite the Muslims. It can help the Muslims to overcome the present crisis. It’s a source of inspiration and guidance providing ethical foundation, a framework in which human action can be conducted, in his view Islam was a social order and civilization to society and to the political process. It provides guidance and inspiration for constitution making and governance”.
Guidance & inspiration for constitution-making and Governance
However when Q A was talking about Islam he was also talking about the modern notions about state, governance, civil and political rights. All the ingredients of modern polity and modern arrangements. For
Modern, Democratic and Islamic State
In his view, Pakistan was to be a modern democratic state that derived its ethical foundation from Islam where the source of guidance and inspiration for constitution making and governance is going to be Islam. That is how Quaid-e-Azam during all these years when he was leading the Independence Movement and then he became the Governor General of Pakistan projected the TWO NATION THEORY and the Muslim nationhood and the ideology of Pakistan.
VISION OF A
Allama Iqbal was another important political leader who played crucial role in developing Muslim consciousness amongst the Muslims of South Asia. Men like Allama Iqbal are born but in centuries. Throughout his career, he was conscious of significance of Islam in lives of the Muslims. He was a poet and philosopher. His first public appearance was in 1899 at the annual session of Anjuman Himayat-i-Islam in Lahore when he presented the poem, Nala-i-Yatim, and that was the beginning of his career as a poet. He was a great poet and philosopher.
At initial stages Dr Iqbal was a nationalist by ideas and his poetry contained verses like Tarana-i-Hind. His poetry was a critique of the existing societal conditions prevailing in
IQBAL- Focus on the conditions of the Indian Muslims
He was convinced that Islam can salvage the Muslims
And he was also convinced that Islam has always saved Muslim and they will have to turn towards Islam to deal with the current situation
For Iqbal Islam is a living and dynamic ideology that can meet modern challenges or the challenges of the present day, and only through Islam and only by following the principles of Islam he thought that they could deal with the situation. He also talked about the re-interpretation of Islam to deal with the modern conditions.
In fact his discussion of Islam and the kind of role it could play in the lives of the Muslims is to be found in his lectures, 6 lectures which he delivered in 1929 and 1930 which were published as Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam which is a difficult study. That’s why many people does,t pay attention to it but it is very important to understand his views on Islam.
Address to the Muslim League Session,
Iqbal also played very active role in practical politics for the Muslims of South Asia. He was a participant in the Round Table Conference in 1931 and in 1932 and Iqbal was also involved in politics in
“I would like to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sind, Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state as a self government within the British Empire or without. This is the final destiny of the Muslims of North West India.”
He thought that if this kind of solution is found then this would provide balance and security for
Later, if you look at his letters which he wrote to Quaid-e-Azam, he articulated these views more clearly in those letters and he also included Bengal in his discussions. This is how he articulated his views.
Above discussion shows the concept of nationhood, Two Nation Theory and ideology of Pakistan with reference to 2 prominent personalities who played a crucial role in shaping those ideas and implementing them.Iqbal was a visionary and an intellectual who saw the dream that one day a state will be created but he didn’t live to see that state coming into existence. He died in 1938.Quaid-e-Azam was a states man, strategist and an advocate of the case for the Muslims and he led the establishment of Pakistan on Aug 14th 1947.