2 Iqbal's Role in Pakistan Movement
3 Iqbal's Idea about Nationhood
4 Iqbal's Political Life
5 Iqbal and Two Nation Theory
6 Pakistan's Sketch
7 Ideology of Pakistan and Iqbal 8 Conclusion ------------------------------------------------------------
Allama Mohammad Iqbal was born on 9th November 1877 in Sialkot. After seeking early education, he was admitted to Government College Lahore, where he obtained M.A. degree in Philosophy. He left for England for higher studies in 1905. In 1907, he obtained the Degree of Doctorate (Ph.D.) from Munich University.
Iqbal's Role in Pakistan Movement
Following are some key areas where Allam Iqbal's role led to Pakistan's creation.
Iqbal's Idea about Nationhood
Allama Iqbal was the greatest philospher and poet of the present era. Alongwith this, he possessed a view about political affairs. He awakened the feeling of Muslim Nationhood among the Muslims of India through his poetry and told them about the propaganda of West about Muslims.
When the Hindu philosphers presented this philosphy that a nation is born throughout the country and when Maulana Hussain Ahmed Madni seconded it, then Iqbal reacted strongly towards it. His thinking and poetry reflect the Two Nation Theory and his poetry awakened the feeling of Islamic nationality among the Muslims of India. This sense of a single unity was a major factor in the creation of Pakistan.
Iqbal's Political Life
Allama Iqbal made his debut in politics when he was elected as the member of Punjab's Legislative Assembly in 1926. During the elections of 1937, when Quaid-e-Azam started the reconstruction of the Muslim Leaague, Allama Iqbal stood besides him. He not only supported Quaid-e-Azam and the Muslim League wholeheartedly, but he also respected Quaid-e-Azam's point of view.
Iqbal and Two Nation Theory
Allama Iqbal firmly believed that the Muslims of India have a separate identity and to protect this identity, the establishment of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India was necessary. On 28th March 1909, he rejected the invitation from the secular party "Minswa Lodge" highligting the fact that:
"I have been a keen supporter of this theory that religious differences in this country should end and even now I practise this principle. But, now I have started to believe that separate national identity for the Muslims and the Hindus is necessary for their survival."
In 1930, in the Annual Session of Muslim League at Allahbad, Iqbal said:
"India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races, speaking different languages and professing different religions. Their behaviour is not at all determined by a common race conciousness. I therefore, demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best intrest of India and Islam."
Allama Iqbal's Presidential Adress at Allahbad in 1930 determined the political path of the Muslims of sub-continent. In his adress, he in clear words said:
"I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh and Balochistan been combined into a single state".
He further stated that:
"The formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of the north west India."
Thus, Iqbal demanded a sovereign independent Muslim state even before the Muslim League demanded it in Pakistan's Resolution.
Ideology of Pakistan and Iqbal
Iqbal was strictly against nationalism. He considered all the Muslims to be a part of One Ummah. For him, a Muslim in any part of the world was part of a brotherly relation. He considered nationalism to be a coffin for the Muslim Umma.
Thus, highlighting the limitations and disadvantages of nationalism, Iqbal gave the philosphy of a "Millat-e-Islamia" and this philosphy became the basis of Pakistan's ideology.
In short, the personality of Allama Iqbal has left indelible marks in history. He tried to awaken the Muslims of India through his philosphy, poetry and politics. He gave the idea of independence to the Muslims of India. Iqbal died on 21st April, 1938. He was buried infront of the "Badshahi Mosque" in "Huzori Bagh."