Role of Jinnah as Governor General

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Introduction:

The man who piloted the ship of Muslim freedom movement and ultimately brought it to the shores of independence was not destined to live long after the realization of his age long dream. His contributions as a creator of Pakistan are numerous. His sagacious decisions during the struggle for independence are uncountable.

It is highly unfortunate for a man who dedicated all his life to transform the dream of Iqbal into reality, to die after (shortly) realization of poet’s dream. The freedom movement drained even the last ounce of the energy out of him. The Lord gave him slightly more than a year to look after the newly created state. Due to precautious health he could not dedicate all his time to build the fabric of infant state. But in more than a year, in face of enormous problems, he did a lot for the consolidations of Pakistan.

The real assessment for his achievements as Governor General can only be made if we go through briefly over the problems which were faced by Pakistan in its early years of independence.

Problems:

a) Administration:

i) A part of the government record was destroyed during transit through Indian Territory.

ii) Manpower for government were yet to be assembled from various provinces.

iii) Lack of trained staff in government departments.

iv) Disorganization in communal system.

b) Defense

c) Riots in Punjab

d) Economic constraints

e) Rehabilitations of refugees.

But in spite of all these problems; Jinnah did a lot to extricate the infant state from unthinkable difficulties. He was successful to redress these problems turn by turn.

I) Revival of the doomed spirit:

He had realized that the morale of the public was at the lowest ebb. He therefore decided to rehabilitate and restore the confidence and morale of the people. He delivered inspiring speeches which filled people with enthusiasm. His words made a profound impression on the public and mitigated the existing despair and tension.

His first stem was to address the government servants in Karachi on October 11, 1947. Quaid-i-Azam gave a clarion call to the assembled officials of civil and military bureaucracy. An extract of his speech gave message to the audience:

….this is a challenge to our very existence and if we are to survive as a nation we shall have to face the problems with redoubled zeal and energy. Our masses are today disorganized, their morale is exceeding low and we shall have to do something to pull them out of this state and galvanize them into activity. All throws additional responsibility on government servants to who in our people are looking for guidance.”

His words revived the drooping spirits.

II) Removal of military from Waziristan and tribal areas:

The decision of reduction of forces from Waziristan and tribal areas was amply justified by the events. This step earned a considerable increase in the tribal goodwill. Instead of heavy military expenditures Pakistan concentrated on economic amelioration spread of education and medical relief.

III) Steps in migrate tension with India:

Jinnah’s government followed a policy of goodwill and friendliness towards India. The two PMs were alike to establish personal rapport. Jinnah in an interview with a Swiss journalist himself offered “to enter into an agreement for joint defense.”

IV) Transfer of Karachi to Government of Pakistan

A serious question of separation of Karachi from Sindh arose. The Sindhis is in general and Sindh government in particular was opposed to the transfer of administrative control of Karachi, the capital of Pakistan as well as of Sindh. Jinnah was facing the threat of direct action and ‘mass agitation’ nevertheless; he gave his verdict in favor of transfer of Karachi from Sindh to the government of Pakistan. As this was the verdict of the father of the nation, not a single word was uttered against it and the issue was settled.

V) Accession of Kalat:

Apart from being governor general, Jinnah towards the end of his life assumed the responsibility for the newly created “Ministry of state and the tribal areas”. His memorial achievements in this sphere was setting of the question of accession of the huge borders of state of Kalat which could have given much more trouble than settlement of Hyderabad question brought to India.

VI) Formation of first Cabinet:

Under the leadership of Liaqat Ali Khan, a loyal lieutenant of Jinnah, was established the first Pakistan Cabinet. This newly formed cabinet amid at the construction of administrative structure and rehabilitation of refugees.

VII) State Bank of Pakistan (1-07-1948):

He fully realized the financial problems and need for sound financial institutions. He, therefore, took personal interest in the economic activity of the newly independent state and established SBP. Their functions were specified.

VIII) Establishment of the Federal Court:

Being the constitutionalist and apposite of indiscrimination justice, he laid the foundation of federal court at Lahore which later on became the Supreme Court of Pakistan.

IX) Membership of UNO:

Jinnah was a firm believer of peaceful existence and fully realized the importance of UN membership for Pakistan. It could help Pakistan establish friendly relations with other member states. Therefore Pakistan became the member of UNO. (30th September 1948)

X) Relations with Islamic World:

Jinnah was a staunch believer of Muslim unity. Even during the freedom movement he supported Palestinians and Indonesians for their right of self determination. The corner-stone of his foreign policy was solidarity among the Muslim Ummah. His main emphases were on Middle Eastern countries. He sent delegations to different Islamic countries.

Conclusion:

Already drained Jinnah could no longer witness his newly created state becoming mature. But the time he got from the Lord was fully utilized by him to build Pakistan into strong and organized state where the Muslims of sub-continent could live according to the ideas of Islam. His efforts to put the infant state on the path of stability and progress are uncountable. His efforts to enthuse people, steps for rehabilitation of refugees, endeavors to settle internal disputes and his maneuvers in diplomatic arena speech of his sagacity and iron will against all hazards.

2 comments:

Unknown said...

Your English is absolutely terrible. Bloody hell...

Anonymous said...

Please improve your English. I understood close to nothing out of what you wrote.

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